American Society of Civil Engineers
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Ca Board of Professional Engineers & Land Surveyor
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U.S. Department of Transportation
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Engineering News Record
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DIG-Alert - Word document or PDF document.

CA Contractors Mechanics Lien:

A Mechanics' Lien is an effective remedy for contractors, subcontractors, and others involved in the construction or improvement of real estate to resolve payment problems. If a service or materials provider records a Mechanics' Lien against the real estate being improved, the owner can not easily sell or refinance the property without first paying off the debt secured by the lien. A Mechanics' Lien motivates the owner to make sure the contractors get paid, and is a prerequisite to filing a foreclosure action on the property.

Preliminary Notices
Claimants who do not have a direct contractual relationship with the owner (e.g., subcontractors) must provide a Preliminary Notice within 20 days of furnishing labor or materials to the job. This ensures that the owner is aware of a potential claimant, so that appropriate steps can be taken to confirm that the contractor is paid. Preliminary Notices must be provided to the owner, general contractor, and lender.
Click here for a California Preliminary Notice form.

Mechanics' Liens
Mechanics' Liens are available to almost anyone who contributes labor, services, or materials to a real estate improvement project. A Mechanics' Lien is used to exact payment out of the real estate itself by placing a lien on the property, making it difficult for the owner to sell or refinance the property, and if necessary, allowing the lien holder to go to court to have the property sold at auction.
Click here for a CA Claim of Mechanics' Lien form.

Stop Notices
A Stop Notice attaches to the owner's undisbursed construction funds, rather than to the property itself, as is the case in a Mechanics' Lien. A Stop Notice compels the owner or lender to hold the remaining construction funds so that claimants can recover for work already completed. Stop notices are not available to claimants with a direct contractual relationship with the owner.
Click here for a CA Stop Notice form.

Removing a Lien or Stop Notice
Once a Mechanics' Lien has been recorded, the claimant must file a court action to enforce the lien within 90 days. If no court action is filed by that time, the lien is no longer valid. However, many title companies don't recognize this fact, and require that the lien be removed before you can pass clear title to a buyer. The easiest way to clear this lien is to ask the lienholder to file a Release of Lien. If they will not, you can petition the court to release the property from the Mechanics' Lien.

CA Contractors Mechanics Lien Release
Click here for a CA Release a Lien form
Click here for a CA Release of Stop Notice form
Click here for a CA Petition to Release a Lien form

Prequalification of Contractors Seeking to Bid on Public Works Projects

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California Contractors Description of Classifications 2003

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California Water Environment Association

Davis-Bacon Wage Determinations

 State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB)

Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP)

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 Sample Project SWPPP Specification Section 01820

 SWRCB Notice of Intent (NOI) Forms

BMP's Best Management Practices

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SWPPP Best Management Practices

CALTRANS Best Management Practices

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National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

(Visit the EPA web site)

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Home

Traffic Control Plans

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Traffic Control Plan - 3 Page Brief

CalTrans Traffic Control Manual

Operating Engineers Job Description

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Heavy Equipment Operating Engineers Job Description



Concrete Material Reference

Weight of Concrete - Pocket Reference

How heavy is Concrete per cubic foot?

The weight of Concrete depends on the aggregate.
Asphaltic concrete, 140 lbs/cubic foot,
Gravel concrete, 150,
Baryte aggregate (heavy, concrete with metallic aggregate) 200,
Lightweight concrete with expanded clay aggregate, 68,
Limestone aggregate concrete with Portland cement, 148.

From Thomas J. Glover Pocket Ref Third Edition 1989-2002.

What is the difference between cement and concrete?

Although the terms cement and concrete often are used interchangeably, cement is actually an ingredient of concrete. Concrete is basically a mixture of aggregates and paste. The aggregates are sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is water and portland cement. Concrete gets stronger as it gets older. Portland cement is not a brand name, but the generic term for the type of cement used in virtually all concrete, just as stainless is a type of steel and sterling a type of silver. Cement comprises from 10 to 15 percent of the concrete mix, by volume. Through a process called hydration, the cement and water harden and bind the aggregates into a rocklike mass. This hardening process continues for years meaning that concrete gets stronger as it gets older.

So, there is no such thing as a cement sidewalk, or a cement mixer; the proper terms are concrete sidewalk and concrete mixer.

How is Portland cement made?

Materials that contain appropriate amounts of calcium compounds, silica, alumina and iron oxide are crushed and screened and placed in a rotating cement kiln. Ingredients used in this process are typically materials such as limestone, marl, shale, iron ore, clay, and fly ash.

The kiln resembles a large horizontal pipe with a diameter of 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.1 meters) and a length of 300 feet (90 meters) or more. One end is raised slightly. The raw mix is placed in the high end and as the kiln rotates the materials move slowly toward the lower end. Flame jets are at the lower end and all the materials in the kiln are heated to high temperatures that range between 2700 and 3000 Fahrenheit (1480 and 1650 Celsius). This high heat drives off, or calcines, the chemically combined water and carbon dioxide from the raw materials and forms new compounds (tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite). For each ton of material that goes into the feed end of the kiln, two thirds of a ton the comes out the discharge end, called clinker. This clinker is in the form of marble sized pellets. The clinker is very finely ground to produce portland cement. A small amount of gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the cement's set or rate of hardening.

What does it mean to "cure" concrete?

Curing is one of the most important steps in concrete construction, because proper curing greatly increases concrete strength and durability. Concrete hardens as a result of hydration: the chemical reaction between cement and water. However, hydration occurs only if water is available and if the concrete's temperature stays within a suitable range. During the curing period-from five to seven days after placement for conventional concrete-the concrete surface needs to be kept moist to permit the hydration process. new concrete can be wet with soaking hoses, sprinklers or covered with wet burlap, or can be coated with commercially available curing compounds, which seal in moisture.

Can it be too hot or too cold to place new concrete?

Temperature extremes make it difficult to properly cure concrete. On hot days, too much water is lost by evaporation from newly placed concrete. If the temperature drops too close to freezing, hydration slows to nearly a standstill. Under these conditions, concrete ceases to gain strength and other desirable properties. In general, the temperature of new concrete should not be allowed to fall below 50 Fahrenheit (10 Celsius) during the curing period.

What is air-entrained concrete?

Air-entrained concrete contains billions of microscopic air cells per cubic foot. These air pockets relieve internal pressure on the concrete by providing tiny chambers for water to expand into when it freezes. Air-entrained concrete is produced through the use of air-entraining Portland cement, or by the introduction of air-entraining agents, under careful engineering supervision as the concrete is mixed on the job. The amount of entrained air is usually between 4 percent and 7 percent of the volume of the concrete, but may be varied as required by special conditions.

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